Sunday, December 1, 2019
Western European Agricultural Advances Western European Agricultural Advances Over the course of world history, there have been many factors that have changed the course of Western European history. Two of those main factors were the inventions of the chest harness for the horse and the three-field system of agriculture. The harness for the horses of the early middle ages was poorly designed and needed to be changed. The early harnesses were used around the horses neck. This led to strangulation of the horses while pulling the plow. Obviously, these early harnesses needed to be designed better to better put the use of the power and speed of the horse. This change came about in the early 900's. An invention was made that allowed the harness to be placed around the horses chest. This new invention prevented horses from being strangled, which allowed for faster plowing and greater food production. Around the same time as the chest harness' invention, medieval villagers were organizing their land into a two field system of agriculture. This system utilized one large field divided in half, one half of a field with crops and left the other half of a field was left unplanted for a year so as not to exhaust the soil. This system led to problems, because dividing the land in half led to shortages in the production of food because only half of the field was being used. This system of agriculture needed some minor adjustments to increase the production of food without destroying the soil in the process. This new system came about around the year 800. Farmers began to use a new system, the three-field system, to farm their crops. The three field system used one large field like it's earlier counterpart. The only change, was that the field was divided into three fields. Instead of only getting food from one half of your land, you could use two-thirds of the land to produce your own food. The direct result was a greater food production. Both of these agricultural inventions forever changed the course of western European history. Using the three field system allowed for the villagers to have more to eat because of the amount of food produced. They produced more of the foods that are good sources of proteins which led to decreased sickness and disease. This led to the increase in the population of Western Europe. People were now able to raise larger families. With the new and improved harnesses on the horses, horses could now plow quicker. A farmer could start farming more land quicker because of the faster plowing methods. This led to even more food being produced, also increasing the population. These two inventions, brought together, forever changed the course of European history. They increased fertile land growth, increased the population, help to try and prevent disease and sickness with better foods and increased food production tremendously.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Core competencies of Indigo Airlines Essay Essays Core competencies of Indigo Airlines Essay Paper Core competencies of Indigo Airlines Essay Paper 1. Merely debt free company in the air power sector Ã¢â¬â It has adequate hard currency in his pool to prolong itself for another two old ages. With the sum of hard currency that indigo possesses it will certainly be one of the large participants in the low-priced infinite globally with its expected fleet size of about 100 planes by the twelvemonth 2016. IndigoÃ¢â¬â¢s fleet makes up about 6. 5 % of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s combined swift size and comparing this figure with the market portion of 27. 40 % . 2. Word of Mouth A ; Repeat Customers Ã¢â¬â Indigo has barely advertised and indulged in trade name edifice activities. It spends less than 1 % of gross on selling. It is merely recently that it started to recognize the value of advertisement and launched a twosome of ads. The secret behind the huge success of the air hose is the word of oral cavity advertisement A ; repetition purchases by the clients. Indigo outperformed its challengers by set uping a difference ; it created greater value to its clients at lower monetary value. Hence. Delivering greater value allowed them to bear down higher and Greater efficiency resulted in lower norm costs. 3. Price Sensitive A ; Time Sensitive Ã¢â¬â The company achieves cost advantage through assorted procedures such as avoiding the in flight services. No free repasts. Highest no. of seats in the aircraft. Lower employees per aircraft. Lightest rider seats in India which weigh merely 12. 8 kilogram and utilizing pigment which overall weights 50 Kgs less. Indigo has broken up the occupation into little packages with clip marks and each of these is monitored. They have even turned around an aircraft in 14 proceedingss. 4. Operational Efficiency A ; Innovation- Indigo has set up a centralised operations control Centre which monitors the conditions. anticipate holds and even provides progress information to the land staff. Average age of the fleet is about 1 twelvemonth. the happening of proficient mistakes are low and therefore less care issues. Because of this Indigo has managed to accomplish high On-Time public presentation. Indigo keeps implementing new and advanced thoughts to increase the quality of client service. Recent illustration is: Indigo has rolling Ã¢â¬Å"check-in countersÃ¢â¬ where riders with merely cabin luggage can check-in with an Indigo functionary with a hand-held device. instead than run alonging up at the check-in counter. Calculating Success of Indigo Airlines ( Load Factor ) Ã¢â¬Å"Indigo has reported a Load Factor of 75. 7 % when the IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s norm was 65. 6 % Ã¢â¬ * Load factor represents the proportion of air hose end product that is really consumed. To cipher burden factor. split RPMs by ASMs * RPM ( Revenue Passenger Miles ) Ã¢â¬â It is calculated by spliting rider gross by available place stat mis * ASM ( Available Seat Miles ) -One aircraft place flown one stat mi. whether occupied or non. For example-An aircraft with 200 rider seats. wing a distance of 200 stat mis. generates 40. 000 available place stat mis.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
All About the Periodic Table The periodic table of the elements is one of the most important tools used by chemists and other scientists because it summarizes useful information about the chemical elements in a format that shows relationships between the elements. Get Your Own Periodic Table You can find the periodic table in any chemistry textbook, plus there are apps for referring to the table from your phone. However, sometimes its nice to be able to have one open on your computer, toÃ save one to your desktop, or to print one off. Printed periodic tables are great because you can mark them up and not worry about ruining your book. Use Your Periodic Table A tool is only as good as your ability to use it! Once you are familiar with the way the elements are organized, you can locate them more quickly, get information from the periodic table, and draw conclusions about the properties of elements based on their location on the table. Periodic Table History Many people consider Dmitri Mendeleev to be the Father of the Modern Periodic Table. Mendeleevs table was slightly different from the table we use today in that his table was ordered by increasing atomic weight and our modern table is ordered by increasing atomic number. However, Mendeleevs table was a true periodic table because it organizes the elements according to recurring trends or properties. Get to Know the Elements Of course, the periodic tableÃ is all about the elements. The elements are identified by the number of protons in an atom of that element. Right now, youll see 118 elements on the periodic table, but as more elements are discovered, another row will be added to the table. Quiz Yourself Because its necessary to know what the periodic table is and how to use it, you can expect to be tested about it from grade school pretty much until the end of time. Before your grade is on the line, probe your strengths and weaknesses with online quizzes. You might even have fun!
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Integrated and Interdependent Global Economy - Essay Example It not only saves time, energy and money, but also induces overall growth to the economy. It is not one country that will be benefitted, but all the countries who are involved in the bilateral trade will be immensely benefitted from the same. Ã Globalization has made a major impact on the world economies. The shift has been mainly towards a more integrated and interdependent economy. Here the market and the production unit must be merged together to give an integrated effect. Also, the geographical factor has been considered when this interdependency aspect has been implemented. This is a good concept because the economy has been merged to source the local services and products and make it available to the huge global market and also to take advantage of the individual national distinctiveness and the other factors of production like energy, land, capital, and labor. Ã In this perspective, the matter of outsourcing refers to the concept of sharing of the production and service operations in an overseas country and also it helps in hiring the employees in a different location rather than employing the people in-house. The processes and functions, which Ã are being outsourced most often, are supply chain by 36%, learning - training by 31%, information technology by 43%, finance and accounting by 21%, human resources by 25% and customer relationship management by 13%. Ã The free trade generates gains for all the countries which take part in the system of free trade, but as the factor of globalization moves throughout the U.S. financial system, many people dispute the effect of outsourcing on the jobs they hold.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Explain the growth in the concentration of media ownership around the world - Assignment Example Founded and headquartered in Australia, the company now boasts of being the number one newspaper publisher in the world, with a cumulative daily readership of 14 million in these three countries alone. Murdoch has a near monopoly in the media space in Australia, owning two-thirds of all newspaper circulation in the country. Across the Tasman Sea, in New Zealand, he owns nearly half. Further, he is the owner of two fifths of the Australian Associated Press. (Knowlton & Parsons, 2005, p. 200) These holdings are notwithstanding his considerable market share in Britain and the United States. These statistics bear testimony to the MurdochÃ¢â¬â¢s media monopoly. Between the lines one can read the dangers posed by monopoly in an industry that is crucial to socio-cultural discourse. One of the negative consequences of media concentration is that it nullifies ethical standards of journalism. News CorpÃ¢â¬â¢s official Standards of Business Conduct (SBC) document makes some bold claims. But the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s actual behaviour is contradictory to these claims. For example, in the area of building trust with business partners and customers, it claims that trust and integrity are of utmost importance. The manner in which the company actually functions makes a mockery of these ethical concerns. There are several instances where News Corp had colluded with political organizations to attain favourable deals. One of the first instances of News CorpÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunistic use of political connections came to light in1995. Murdoch struck a book deal with the then House Speaker of the United States Congress Newt Gingrich for a substantial sum of $4.5 million. The ethical problem was obvious in this case. Murdoch, who was even at that time an influential and trans-global media personality, owned a newspaper chain and several television stations. He stood to gain enormously through the relationship with the Speaker. It was only after severe public
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Medicare and Medicaid Cuts Essay The debate on health care spending has been highly contested and remains the top most agenda on the Obama administration. The U. S government has been pursuing effective health care reforms for quite a long period of time. Focus has been on developing a plan that reduces government spending on heath and home care reimbursements while increasing the regard for insurance cover. An important aspect of these reforms is the reduction in budgetary spending on Medicare and Medicaid programs (Meena, et al. 006). President Obama in 2009 announced the $ 313 reduction in Medicaid and Medicare efficiencies as a move to accomplish the proposed savings essential for facilitating the administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s heath-care plan. Currently, the cut on Medicare reimbursements paid for health care access costs by psychiatric patients, the elderly and the disabled stands at about 21%. In justifying these cuts, the U. S government points out that the funds would be less essential in the light of a new health care reform. However, at the current economic status and the increasingly declining rates of hospital revenues, this move has resulted into the rationing of medical and home care services, high payroll taxes, and closure of departments and hospitals. According to a study conducted by the American Hospital Association (AHA) regarding these cuts, about one in every five hospitals have already reduced a number of health care services such as outpatient services, post-acute care and behavioural health; as they have had to reduce overhead costs resulting from the cuts (Shen, 2003). These cuts will affect millions of people especially seniors, military families and the disabled who depend greatly on Medicare. This is because accessibility to physician help will be minimized. In support of medical practitioners, The American Medical Association (AMA) argues against these cuts on the basis that they are derived through an unreliable method of determining the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ reimbursements and which according to them ought to be reviewed. It is imperative to also note that the effects of these cuts are being transferred to the public through increased insurance costs. Effects on Access, Cost and Quality of Psychiatric Care There is evidence that patientÃ¢â¬â¢s access to health and home care has been increasingly diminishing in the past few years and even got worse following the recent 21% Medicare cuts. Physicians argue that this has been prompted by the increased costs in the provision of medical care services due to the reimbursement cuts. For instance, by the year 2005, medical care provision costs had been projected to be about 40% more than the in 1991 (White, Dranove 1998). In 2008, about $ 879 million was spent by hospitals in Michigan in subsiding services for the patients affected by the cuts. There have also been care rationing, reduction in provision of vital medical services and closure of hospital departments has been prevalent. This means that access to heath care services by concerned individuals has reduced significantly. A number of medical practitioners have been forced to stop providing psychiatric services to patients due to high overhead costs (Meena, et al. 2006). The reduced Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements have made it impossible for psychiatrists to effectively provide care to long-term-care clients as well. There are reports of psychiatrists declining to provide consultation services in nursing homes as result of the lower rates of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursements received. According to the chair of the Geriatric Psychiatry committee for the Maryland Psychiatric Society, Allan Anderson, the cuts are a drawback to the willingness of the psychiatrists to provide care for the Medicare-based patients (Mulligan, 2002). Geriatric patients currently are underserved. Psychiatrists argue that due to a reduced access to psychiatric care such in cases demanding early interventions, most psychiatric patients are ending up complications. Doctors note that the cuts make it difficult for them to meet the requirements of their practice such as administrative issues and thus end up restricting their caseloads on Medicare. Currently, Medicaid does not take responsibility of the complete co pay for patients on both the Medicaid and Medicare and this has made a number of clinics to close to avoid the extra burden of absorbing the costs of treating these patients. For instance, MinnesotaÃ¢â¬â¢s Mayo Clinic incurred a loss of about $ 34. 2 million in years 2002 and 2003 due to these cuts and it is such losses that are pushing clinics to close down minimizing access to health acre even more. Access to healthcare for the Medicare patients is increasingly becoming expensive and complicated given that the ability to pay currently determines this access (White, Dranove 1998). Most heath facilities have had to cut down on their provisions of vital services that the seniors, the metal disabled and the military personnel within the community rely on to protect their bottom lines. Affected patients are being forced to skip visits to hospitals and this has prompted the providers to restrict access through costs. Impact on Psychiatrists and Other Medical and Home Care Providers A study of about 14,000 anaesthologists and surgeons indicate that most medical care providers will change their practice thus jeopardizing health care provision. A third of those studied said they will cease to practice as Medicare psychiatrists. This will adversely affect their quality of life. Practical challenges are forcing the providers to halt providing some Medicare related services, cutback on staff, minimize time allocated for Medicare patients and/or halt further purchase of equipments essential for serving such patients (Konetzka, et al. 2005). This will limit the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s practice adversely. Some medical and home care providers have been forced to quit their practice following the high overhead resulting from the high costs incurred in attending to Medicare patients. Hospitals are being forced to resize on Medicare patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ staff since hospitals have had to absorb care costs. Individual practitioners are more affected. Reimbursements cuts are prompting hospitals to focus on other non-reimbursement-dependent care services while closing down departments as well as cutting back on services to enable hospitals protect their bottom lines. This trend is prevalent even in community hospitals. In this regards, hospitals and home care provision establishments have had to reduce the number of practitioners providing these services and hence most are on the verge of losing their jobs should the cuts continue as anticipated (Mulligan, 2002). This implies that the government will only be solving on problem while creating multitude of others such unemployment. Many hospitals have also resulted in freezing of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ salaries and hence compromising their motivation. Impact on Taxpayers According to Randall (2009), the 2005Ã¢â¬â¢s 3 % reimbursement cut resulted into a $ 49 billion in terms of cost on permanent reforms. Currently, the Medicare reimbursement cut stands at 21% at a reform cost of about $ 210 billion. Medicare and Medicaid programs are funded by pay roll taxes. According to the health care reform bill, there will be an expansion of the pay roll tax associated with the Medicare to cover unearned income. It is projected that beginning year 2018; insurance firms will be required to pay an excise tax of about 40% for plans where family premiums range from $ 27, 500 and above (Sam, 2006). Experts note that these payroll tax effects will be transferred to employees in terms of lowers wages and benefits or in terms of higher premiums. This comes at a time when the government is focused on laying strict measure to ensure that people have health insurance. Further, it is also projected that from year 2013, adjustable spending accounts which currently enable users to skip various expenses on health care, will reduced or limited. In regards to the high income earning population, families earning in excess of $ 250, 000 will be required to spend way above what they spend currently on medical payroll taxes. Moreover, the now exempt unearned income will also be subjected to 3. 8 percent in payroll taxes. Individuals and families are definitely feeling the weight of these Medicaid and Medicare cuts through increased payroll taxes. This is because the federal government is focusing on insurances an alterative to help patients meet their health care costs. A 2005study by the Kaiser Family Foundation on employer health benefits indicates that family coverage premiums had increased by an average of about 9. 2 percent (Sam, 2006). Health insurance expenses have made it costly to employees as they are subjected to deductions for the same. At the same time, the mean per month contribution by employees on family plans increased to $ 226 in year 2005 form 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s $135. These are some of the costs that the citizens are bearing at the expense of the reduction in Medicare and Medicaid cuts.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Fort Pillow Attack THE GRAND FABRICATION It is almost as difficult to find consistent information about the incident at Fort Pillow as it is to determine the moral significance of its outcome. Scholars disagree about exactly what transpired on April 12, 1864 at Fort Pillow, when General Nathan Bedford Forrest captured the fort with his 1,500 troops and claimed numerous Union lives in the process (Wyeth 250). It became an issue of propaganda for the Union, and as a result the facts were grossly distorted. After close examination it is clear that the Ã ³Fort Pillow MassacreÃ ² (as it became known by abolitionists) was nothing of the sort. The 1,500 troops under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest acted as men and as soldiers in their capture of Fort Pillow. It is first necessary to understand what happened in the battle before any judgment can be made. A careful study performed by Dr. John Wyeth revealed the following information: from April 9-11, 1864, troops under the command of Ben McCulloch, Tyree Harris Bell, and Brig. General James Chalmers marched non-stop to Fort Pillow to begin their assault under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Confederate sharpshooters claimed the lives of several key Union officers during the morning assault on the fort. The losses included the commanding officer Major Loinel F. Booth, and his second in command shortly after that. These losses created a complete breakdown of order and leadership among the Union troops within the fort. (251) During the morning engagement, the gun boat the New Era was continually attempting to shell the Confederate forces from the Mississippi, but with minimal success. The Union forces fought back heartily until around one oÃ ¹clock in the afternoon, when both sides slowed down. Around that time the New Era steamed out of range to cool its weapons. It had fired a total of 282 rounds, and its supplies were almost totally exhausted. During this hiatus in the firing, while Confederate troops waited for supplies that would arrive around three oÃ ¹clock, Forrestwas injured when his horse fell on him after being mortaily wounded (252). When the supplies arrived, Confederate troops under a flag of truce delivered a message from Forrest that said, Ã ³My men have received a fresh supply of ammunition, and from their present position can easily assault and capture the fort,Ã ² (253). Forrest demanded Ã ³the unconditional surrender of the garrison,Ã ² promising